Wednesday, November 24, 2010

Etymológia "pirátstva" a diskurzná analýza protipirátskych kampaní

Našli si ma dva články k pirátstvu, ktoré ďalej rozvíjajú témy, ktorými sa zaoberám v mojej dizertačnej práci. Jeden k etymológii pojmu pirátstvo a druhý je diskurzná analýza k tomu ako je konštruované pirátstvo v súčasnosti.

1. Dames, K. Matthew. The Framing of 'Piracy': Etymology, Lobbying & Policy
Etymológii pojmu pirátstvo som sa zatiaľ bližšie nevenoval, ale zaujímalo ma kedy sa začalo používať pirátstvo na označovanie porušovania práv duševného vlastníctva. Pravdepodobne pochádza z anglického knižného priemyslu v 18. storočí, ktorý sa vyrovnával so zrušením systému privilégií a absenciou autorského práva v rokoch 1695-1710. V knihe The reading nation in the Romantic period uvádza William St. Clair na stranách 89-90 príklad.
[Joseph] Addison [1672-1719], adopting the commercial metaphors of international trade, compared an expensive education and the personal efforts needed for the writing of a book to the fitting out of a ship for a long hazardous voyage. "Those few investors who have the good fortunte to bring their rich wares into port are plundered by privateers under the very cannon that should protect them." The word "pirate" soon became the most common image in the book industry to describe the stealing of intellectual property by one member of the industry from another.

Späť k článku o etymológii pirátstva (s. 5-6), ktorý vychádza najmä z článku a monografie od Alfreda P. Rubina - The Law of Piracy:

During the 10th and 9th centuries B.C. in Greece, small groups routinely engaged in the organized use of force; this was an activity seen merely as part of citizens’ struggle for survival rather than anything that was immoral or illegal. Those who engaged in piracy seized essential goods, but the practice was not limited to necessities, since pirates also seized goods merely for gain. Whether for need or sport, piracy served as a wholly legitimate alternative to Greece’s main gift-exchange economic transfer system. In this way, piracy was an original underground economy.
Throughout ancient Greek and Roman history, the conception of “piracy” distinguished between thieves who were criminals that were subject to punishment under Roman law, and Eastern Mediterranean political societies that pursued an economic and political way of life that accepted seizing goods.
Zaujímavé je ako Rubin kontextualizuje ekonómiu pirátstva ako jednu z funkčných dobových ekonómií, spolu s ekonómiou daru.
Neskôr sa článok venuje súčasnému chápaniu pojmu "pirátstvo" prevažne v právnickej literatúre.

Pozrieť sa bližšie na:
Rubin, Alfred P.
The Law of Piracy 5 (1988).
The Law of Piracy, 15 Denver Journal of International Law and Policy 173-233 (1987).
Is Piracy Illegal? (Note) 70 AJIL 92-95 (1976).

2. Mirghani, Suzannah. The War on Piracy: Analyzing the Discursive Battles of Corporate and Government-Sponsored Anti-Piracy Media Campaigns.
Z abstraktu:
this study shows how the current ‘‘war on piracy’’ discourse is saturated in linguistic aggression through the strategic use of military metaphors ‘‘in an attempt to gain dominance’’ over all aspects of ‘‘intellectual property’’ production, distribution, and consumption.
The concept of ‘‘piracy’’ is as much a discursive creation on the part of corporate- and government-sponsored media campaigns as it is an activity undertaken by copyright infringers.
Second, I show that in order for the ‘‘anti-piracy’’ discourse to have any currency and effect on a largely unconcerned and unconvinced public, corporate- and government- sponsored media campaigns frame it within the boundaries of the current ‘‘war on terror’’ in order to narrate it as a dangerous crime.
Third, I argue that ‘‘the war on piracy’’ is being fought by rights holder institutions who portray themselves as a disciplining and policing force by evoking military metaphors and symbols of war in their public annunciations and actions. I conclude by outlining the prospective damage that is created by the progression of strict copyright laws and emphasize the need for a ‘‘re-framing’’ of our relationship to cultural texts in the age of digital reproduction. Never has there been such a rich cultural cache made so potentially redundant by being rendered inaccessible to the public.
Na tému diskurzná analýza konštruovania pirátstva v protipirátskych kampaniach je ďalší vynikajúci článok Yar, Majid. The rhetorics and myths of anti-piracy campaigns criminalization.

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